Venice Biennale 2010

“Serial Architecture – Systems of Multiplicities”

The project “Serial Architecture – Systems of Multiplicities” rethinks quotidian architecture in Hong Kong, a city with an average density of over 6,300 people per square kilometer. As one of the most compact cities in the world, Hong Kong is a diverse and complex place where topographical constraints and unique historical circumstances have created extreme urban forms for the basic needs of city life. Hong Kong housing is predominantly based on the typology of the tower. While this configuration allows for many different interpretations, the common approach to this design task is based on repetitive, reductive and profit driven ideas.

Serial Architecture - Systems of Multiplicities investigates the potential for innovating the organization of Hong Kong’s tower typology. The project interrogates the design, building and living circumstances in Hong Kong investigating possible alternative design techniques that can result in a series of tower configurations that vary and possibly produce unique living conditions. With the introduction of digital media and digital manufacturing processes, the conception of modularized architecture constructed out of nearly identical industri¬ally mass-produced components has been challenged. Today, with the use of the computer and various open software packages, architecture can instead be realized as varying prototypes of a series. Within each series a variety of design versions can be realized. Each of these design versions is unique and yet also part of the series. Rather than having a fixed form, this approach offers the ability to develop models that describe a flexible space that is based on a set of relationships of discrete ele¬ments. Hence, the designer is able to constantly redefine and alter the model, capable of producing many possible versions based on varying input data.

The project is in-formed through several interrelated parameters that generate infinite tower-versions within the a priori defined framework of operation. 125 Tower Versions were generated by one and the same algorithm. Five matrixes, each consisting of 25 towers were generated displaying different tower-families. Each has 60 floors, versions of one and another, as much as of the basis floor plan that was developed in reference to Hong Kong’s existing Tower Typology. While the principles of the highly space and material efficient plans were maintained, a lid semi-public zone between elevator-core and apartments was introduced. The size of the apart¬ments varies, and so does the size of the semi-public zone, which - depending on its size - may take on different programs. The flexing of the tower footprint allows the model to adapt to changing social and programmatic as much as to changing environmental and urban requirements.

While the project suggests a model for the use of contemporary digital design techniques in architecture it is at the same time a critical commentary on the excess of the same.

Project Title: “Serial Architecture – Systems of Multiplicities”
Location: Venice, Italy
Design year: 2010
Construction year: 2010
Type: Exhibition contribution
Client/Organisation: Quotidian Architectures at the Venice Biennale, Hong Kong in Venice




 Venice Architecture Biennale   Serial Architecture, Rocker Lange  
 Rocker Lange Architects   parametric tower 
 Venice Architecture Biennale   Hong Kong Pavilion 
 Venice Architecture Biennale   Hong Kong Pavilion 
 Serial Architecture   Venice Architecture Biennale 
 Serial Architecture    Systems of Multiplicities 
 Systems of Multiplicities   Serial Architecture, Rocker Lange  
 parametric tower   Systems of Multiplicities 
 Systems of Multiplicities   Serial Architecture, Rocker Lange  
 Venice Biennale Architecture   Rocker Lange Architects 


Rocker-Lange Architects


Ingeborg M. Rocker
Christian J. Lange

Cambridge, MA, London, England, Hong Kong


2015 100 Van Ness, Urban Adapter, sculpture bench
2015 Shanghai Lilong Tower Urbanism, Towards an Urbanism of Parametric Preservation
2014 The Ideal City of Refigured Civic Space, Hong Kong & Shenzhen Biennale, Hong Kong
2013 Blend-es-Scape, Beijing, China, A pavilion for the Fifth International Architectural Biennale Beijing 2013
2013 Taichung Cultural Centre, Taichung, Taiwan
2012 Wallhouse, Cambridge, USA,GSD Pavilion 2012 2012 Density & Openess Reviseted: Recoding Building Bulk in Hong Kong, Hong Kong & Shenzhen Biennale, Hong Kong
2011 Busan Opera House, Busan, South Korea
2010 Serial Architecture Systems of Multiplicities, Venice Biennale, Venice, Italy
2010 Tokyo Fashion Museum, Omotesando, Tokyo, Japan
2009 Urban Adapter, Hong Kong & Shenzhen Biennale, Hong Kong
2009 Catalytic Connector - Museum of Natural History, Copenhagen, Denmark
2009 Living Bridge London Bridge, London, UK
2008 Villa Inside|Out Outside|In, The Ordos 100, Mongolia, China
2007 Domicile Heldt, Eckernfoerde, Germany
2006 Villa Risse, Krefeld, Germany

Product Design

2010 Zhuhai Lounge
2009 SP-Table_01
2009 SP-Table_02
2009 Urban Adapter


2010 Parametric Structures, Spring Seminar, The University of Hong Kong, Department of Architecture
2009 On the Brink, Spring Seminar, Harvard University, GSD
Versioning: Architecture as Series
Cross scalar and functional scaling: adaptive facades
Algorithmically controlled surfaces


2008 Versioning: Architecture as Series?
2008 Berechneter Zufall: Max Benses Informationsaesthetik
2008 Architectures of the Digital Realm: Experimentation by Peter Eisenman / Frank O. Gehry
2006 Digital Revolution: Feedback between Architecture, Technology, and Culture
2006 Calculus-Based Form: An Interview with Greg Lynn
2006 When Code Matters, in Programming Cultures: Design, Science, and Software
2005 Re-Coded: Studio Rocker
2004 Das Denkmal fuer die Ermordeten Juden Europas in Berlin: Erinnern, Bewahren, Hinterfragen
2004 Virtuale: Il Senza Forma in Architettura: Di Ingeborg Rocker
2003 Fugitive Realities: Konrad Fiedler
2002 Versioning Informing Architectures, in: Versioning: Evolutionary Techniques in Architecture
1998 Memorizing, Maintaining, Questioning: Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe, Peter Eisenman
1998 The Virtual: The Unform in Architecture